TAM EDITA QUAM INEDITA
S.i.t., s.d. (Londra ?, fine '600 ?)
Cm.38, pp.(colonne da 761 a 1892) + indici; legatura d'epoca in piena pelle con fregi impressi a secco sui piatti titoli dorati al dorso (difetti)
Interessante edizione antica e d'epoca,
grosso volume con vasta raccolta di scritti del noto giurista inglese John Selden, grande studioso di storia ebraica,
e proprio della sua nota e imponente trilogia è qui
disponibile il solo volume contrassegnato "Vol. I, Tom. II", ossia il secondo tomo del primo volume,
ma volume praticamente a sè stante poichè ogni volume di tutta la raccolta di opere dell'Autore comprende singole trattazioni;
e infatti questo grosso tomo ha all'interno:
DE SYNEDRIIS ET PRAEFECTURIS JURIDICIS VETERUM EBRAEORUM
(Liber Primus, con prefazione datata Londra 1650; Liber Secundus, con prefazione datata Londra 1653; Liber Tertius e Ultimus)
ovviamente impossibile poter dare una esauriente sintesi della vasta trattazione,
per la fittissima descrizione che occupa centinaia di pagine, dove si parla di leggi ebraiche, Talmud, Mosè, Sinedrio, Salomone, S. Michele Arcangelo, ... e vari tipi di illeciti, culti estranei, blasfemia verso Dio, incesto, rapina e furto, eunuchismo, ...;
al testo latino è frammisto anche parte di testo in ebraico (?), con citazioni più ampie sopratutto nella terza parte, dove le scritte sono anche in bella grafia e di colore rosso e nero,
forse perchè riporta brani delle Sacre Scritture o dei Vangeli e Atti degli Apostoli (?) essendo citati un pò tutti gli Apostoli e alcuni Salmi;
a fine volume è presente un copioso indice dei nomi citati, ma anche un indice degli argomenti trattati, da cui spulciamo citazioni sulla Chiesa Gerosolmitana, sulle feste, sulla Grecia e la cultura leggi religioni filosofia greche, la luna e le sue fasi, la morte e i suoi riti, filosofi e filosofia, permutazione dei metalli, pellegrinaggio e pellegrini, astronomia, Pitagora, profeti, rabbini, Roma e i romani e le loro tradizioni, Talmud, Sinedrio, ....e innumerevoli altre citazioni;
alcuni fregi xilografici artistici e decorativi inseriti a inizio o fine testo, e una illustrazione incisa all'acquaforte inserita nel testo.
DI GRANDE INTERESSE STORICO, GIURIDICO, RELIGIOSO, SPECIALISTICO, BIBLIOGRAFICO
Modesta conservazione generale, segni e difetti d'uso e d'epoca, volume con estesa tarlatura, con gallerie da tarlo che interessano occasionalmente anche il testo ma che sono prevalentemente diffuse ai margini delle pagine, molto probabilmente per una azione repulsiva operata dall'inchiostro della stampa, che nel corso dei secoli potrebbe aver dissuaso -fortunatamente- i tarli dall'invadere le pagine scritte; nonostante la evidente tarlatura l'opera è complessivamente ben leggibile, ancora ben fresca per la buona qualità della carta; legatura antica in piena pelle su supporto rigido, con i piatti arricchiti da fregi impressi a secco, ma legatura allentata e con rotture al dorso e usurata in parte ma ben ripristinabile;
complessivamente volume meritevole di restauro anche se restauro prevalentemente dovuto alle parti marginali (in parte sfaldate per l'erosione); e comunque anche così l'opera resta molto fascinosa con il suo sapore di vissuto;
per lo stato conservativo sù citato l'opera viene ceduta così com'è, senza alcuna garanzia di integrità;
alcuni fregi xilografici arricchiscono l'opera, collocati generalmente a inzio o fine testo; non è presente un vero e proprio frontespizio che probabilmente doveva essere invece presente sul primo tomo del primo volume; la numerazione delle pagine così come sù indicata è riferita alle colonne ossia poichè il testo è distribuito su due colonne per ogni pagina, l'editore ha contrassegnato distintamente le due colonne, sia al recto che al verso di ogni foglio;
MOLTO BELLE LE PAGINE CON IMPRESSI BRANI EBRAICI
(le immagini allegate raffigurano alcuni particolari dell'intero volume, eventuali ulteriori informazioni a richiesta)
Il Sinedrio di Gerusalemme era l'organo preposto all'emanazione delle leggi ed alla gestione della giustizia. Le opinioni venivano discusse prima delle votazioni ma le opinioni in minoranza non venivano scartate e non erano proibite: semplicemente l'opinione di maggioranza diventava vincolante.
Storia del Sinedrio
la tradizione biblica vuole che il Sinedrio sia stato fondato da Mosè. Nell'età dei re non esisteva un Sinedrio vero e proprio, ma c'erano dei tribunali che si tenevano alle porte di città o villaggi. Non solo c'erano dei sacerdoti e degli anziani, ma anche dei magistrati civili. Il Sinedrio che conosciamo nacque in età ellenistica, e fu fondamentale per lo sviluppo della storia ebraica di questo periodo. Anche i Vangeli parlano del Sinedrio, perché lì fu condannato Gesù dai sacerdoti, che lo vedevano come un semplice malfattore. Il Sinedrio scomparirà definitivamente con la diaspora del 70 d.C.
I tribunali all'infuori di Gerusalemme
Il Sinedrio infatti governava solamente il Tempio e Gerusalemme stessa. Per le altre cittadelle vi erano dei consigli di 7 anziani (presbyteri). Questi anziani non erano sacerdoti ricchi e quindi vivevano di elemosina o esercitando un mestiere. I tribunali si tenevano nella Sinagoga, che non era solo un tempio, ma anche una scuola, un tribunale o un municipio. Sebbene la religiosità di Gerusalemme fosse capitanata dal Sommo Sacerdote, nei paesini vi era un rabbino, che era anche un maestro ed un dottore di Legge (si diventava rabbini attorno ai 40 anni).
I compiti del Sinedrio
I compiti del Sinedrio erano quelli di far rispettare la Legge della Torah in ogni suo atto. In epoca romana il Sinedrio poteva giudicare qualunque sentenza, a eccezione della pena capitale.
Il Potere Legislativo ed esecutivo
Il Sinedrio non formulava leggi, ma le faceva rispettare solamente.
La regolazione del calendario
La regolazione del calendario era affidata al sinedrio di Gerusalemme che impostava la suddivisione dei mesi nel nuovo anno in maniera empirica, in base all'osservazione delle fasi lunari ed all'alternanza delle stagioni. Qualora un osservatore avesse rilevato la luna nuova in cielo avrebbe dovuto avvertire quanto prima il Sinedrio che, accertati i dati in suo possesso e ottenute due testimonianze concordanti, decretava l'inizio del nuovo mese. Per decretare gli anni embolismali ci si regolava invece sulla realtà stagionale: quando la primavera tardava il Sinedrio decretava l'introduzione di un tredicesimo mese, garantendo così la celebrazione delle feste stagionali nel loro periodo. Dopo la distruzione del Tempio e la cessazione del Sinedrio, il popolo ebraico prese a seguire il calendario perpetuo stabilito dall'amoraim Hillel (da non confondere con l'omonimo tannaim).
Il Potere Giudiziario
Il Sinedrio giudicava e puniva ogni reato attraverso una magistratura eccezionale (il Sinedrio era convocato solamente per motivi molto gravi). Era presieduto dal Sommo Sacerdote (cohen), che superava il re in qualità di supremo magistrato. L'organo del Sinedrio che esercitava il potere giudiziario era formato dalle guardie del Tempio, che sorvegliavano l'ordine pubblico nel Sinedrio e nella stessa Gerusalemme. Erano capeggiati dal cohanim, magistrato scelto tra i pontefici o tra i parenti del Sommo Sacerdote. Il cohanim sostituiva anche il Sommo Sacerdote se si assentava.
La pena di Morte
Il Sinedrio era l'unico organismo che poteva infliggere la pena di morte: poiché oggi questo organismo di giudizio non esiste, tale pena, seppure contemplata, non può essere applicata. Bisogna comunque e sempre tenere a mente che la pena di morte, anche in presenza del Sinedrio, è pressoché inapplicabile ed è più un rafforzamento del valore della vita che un mezzo per privarne qualcuno. Il Talmud testimonia che un Sinedrio che decretasse la pena di morte ogni 70 anni veniva considerato eccessivamente severo.
Le altre magistrature del Tempio
Un altro magistrato del Sinedrio era il capo settimanale di turno delle 24 classi del Sinedrio ed altri capi che variavano da 7 a 9 a seconda delle classi sacerdotali. Il Sinedrio inoltre amministrava direttamente le finanze ed il commercio nel Tempio attraverso 7 custodi dei recinti del Tempio e 3 tesorieri.
Dallo scioglimento del Sinedrio, in epoca bizantina (circa il IV secolo d.C.), per la discussione della Legge e la soluzione delle diverse questioni quotidiane ci si rivolgeva al Rabbino, od ai rabbini della città, nominati dai Rabbini precedenti in tutte le epoche e in tutti i luoghi. I Rabbini, costantemente in contatto tra loro, discutevano sulle domande che venivano poste loro e tenevano traccia di tutte le risposte: questa pratica ha dato vita ad un nutritissimo archivio di Sheeloth uTshuvoth (lett. Domande e risposte).
In tutte le comunità ebraiche del mondo è tutt'oggi presente un ufficio rabbinico che si occupa della gestione dei problemi quotidiani mentre parte dei compiti svolti da Sinedrio sono ora stati presi in carico dal rabbinato centrale di Gerusalemme sebbene durante la storia varie entità si siano fatte carico di queste incombenze.(dal web)
John Selden, English jurist and philosopher
|Full name||John Selden|
|Born||December 16, 1584|
|Died||November 30, 1654 (aged 69)|
|School/tradition||Natural Law, Social contract, Humanism|
|Main interests||Political philosophy, Legal history|
|Notable ideas||proposed an egoistic theory of moral motivation, maintained that natural law was revealed historically through (esp. Hebrew) scripture, argued that civil law arises from contract|
John Selden (December 16, 1584 – November 30, 1654) was an English jurist, scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution  and scholar of Jewish law. He was known as a polymath showing true intellectual depth and breadth; John Milton hailed Selden in 1644 as "the chief of learned men reputed in this land."
He was born at Salvington, in the parish of West Tarring, Sussex (now part of the town of Worthing). His father, another John Selden, had a small farm. It is said that his skill as a violin-player was what attracted his wife, Margaret, who was from a better family, being the only child of Thomas Baker of Rustington -- descended from a knightly family of Kent. Selden was educated at the free grammar school at Chichester, and in 1600 he went on to Hart Hall, Oxford. In 1603 he was admitted to Clifford's Inn, London; in 1604 he moved to the Inner Temple; and in 1612 he was called to the bar. His earliest patron was Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, the antiquary, who seems to have employed him to copy and summarise some of the parliamentary records then held at the Tower of London. For some reason, Selden very rarely practised in court, but his practice in chambers as a conveyancer and consulting counsel was large and apparently lucrative.
Legal scholar into politics
In 1618 his History of Tithes appeared. Although it was only published after submission to the censor and licensing, this dissertation on the historical basis of the tithe system caused anxiety among the bishops and provoked the intervention of the king. The author was summoned before the privy council and compelled to retract his opinions. His work was suppressed and he was forbidden to reply to anyone who might come forward to answer it.
This all seems to have caused Selden's entry into politics. Although he was not in Parliament, he was the instigator and perhaps the draughtsman of the protestation on the rights and privileges of the House affirmed by the House of Commons on December 18, 1621. He and several others were imprisoned, at first in the Tower and later under the charge of Sir Robert Ducie, sheriff of London. During his brief detention, he occupied himself in preparing an edition of Eadmer's History from a manuscript lent to him by his host or jailor, which he published two years afterwards.
In 1623 he was returned to the House of Commons for the borough of Lancaster, and sat with John Coke, William Noy and John Pym on Sergeant Glanville's election committee. He was also nominated reader of Lyon's Inn, an office he declined to undertake. For this the benchers of the Inner Temple fined him £20 and disqualified him from being one of their number. Nevertheless, after a few years, he became a master of the bench. In the first parliament of Charles I (1625), it appears from the "returns of members" printed in 1878 that, contrary to the assertion of all his biographers, he had no seat. In Charles's second parliament (1626) he was elected for Great Bedwyn in Wiltshire, and took a prominent part in the impeachment of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. In the following year, in Darnell's Case (the Five Knights' Case), he was counsel for Sir Edmund Hampden in the Court of King's Bench.
In 1628 he was returned to the third parliament of Charles for Ludgershall, Wiltshire, and was involved in drawing up and carrying the Petition of Right. In the session of 1629 he was one of the members responsible for the tumultuous passage in the House of Commons of the resolution against the illegal levy of tonnage and poundage, and, along with Sir John Eliot, Denzil Holles, Long, Valentine, William Strode, and the rest, he was sent back to the Tower. There he remained for eight months, deprived for a part of the time of the use of books and writing materials. He was then removed, under less rigorous conditions, to the Marshalsea, until Archbishop Laud arranged for him to be freed. Some years before he had been appointed steward to the Earl of Kent, to whose seat, Wrest in Bedfordshire, he now retired.
He was not elected to the Short Parliament of 1640; but to the Long Parliament, summoned in the autumn, he was returned without opposition for Oxford University. He opposed the resolution against episcopacy which led to the exclusion of the bishops from the House of Lords, and printed an answer to the arguments used by Sir Harbottle Grimston on that occasion. He joined in the protestation of the Commons for the maintenance of the Protestant religion according to the doctrines of the Church of England, the authority of the crown, and the liberty of the subject. He was equally opposed to the court on the question of the commissions of lieutenancy of array and to the parliament on the question of the militia ordinance. In the end he supported Parliament against King Charles, because (he said) he was certain the latter was acting illegally, while he wasn't certain about the former.
In 1643 he participated in the discussions of the Westminster Assembly, where his Erastian views were opposed by George Gillespie. Selden's allies included Thomas Coleman, John Lightfoot, and Bulstrode Whitelocke.
He was appointed shortly afterwards keeper of the rolls and records in the Tower. In 1645 he was named one of the parliamentary commissioners of the admiralty, and was elected master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge--an office he declined to accept. In 1646 he subscribed the Solemn League and Covenant, and in 1647 was voted £5000 by the parliament as compensation for his sufferings in the evil days of the monarchy.
After the death of the Earl of Kent in 1639 Selden lived permanently under the same roof with the earl's widow, the former Elizabeth Talbot. It is believed that he married her, although their marriage does not seem to have ever been publicly acknowledged. He died at Friary House in Whitefriars, and was buried in the Temple Church, London. His tomb is today clearly visible through glass plates in the floor of this church. Furthermore, he is commemorated by a monumental inscription on the south side of the Temple Church. More than two centuries after his death, in 1880, a brass tablet was erected to his memory by the benchers of the Inner Temple in the parish church of West Tarring.
It was as a prolific scholar and writer that Selden won his reputation. The early books were on English history.
English history and antiquities
In 1610 three of his works came out: England's Epinomis and Jani Anglorum; Facies Altera, which dealt with the progress of English law down to Henry II; and The Duello, or Single Combat, in which he traced the history of trial by battle in England from the Norman Conquest. In 1613 he supplied a series of notes, including quotations and references, to the first eighteen cantos of Michael Drayton's Poly-Olbion. In 1614 he published Titles of Honour, which, in spite of defects and omissions, remained a comprehensive and work for centuries. It earned for Selden the praise "monarch of letters" from his friend Ben Jonson.
In 1615, the Analecton Anglobritannicon, an account of the civil administration of England before the Norman Conquest, written in 1607, was published; its title and argument imitated the Franco-Gallia of François Hotman. In 1616 appeared notes on John Fortescue's De laudibus legum Angliae and Ralph de Hengham's Summae magna et parva.
In 1618 his controversial History of Tithes was published. A first sign of the coming storm was the 1619 book controverting Selden in an appendix, Sacrilege Sacredly Handled by James Sempill. Selden hit back, but was soon gagged. The churchmen Richard Tillesley (1582-1621) (Animadversions upon M. Seldens History of Tithes, 1619) and Richard Montagu (Diatribae upon the first part of the late History of Tithes, 1621) attacked the work. There were further replies by William Sclater (The Quaestion of Tythes Revised, 1623), and by Stephen Nettles (Answer to the Jewish Part of Mr. Selden's History of Tithes 1625). In it Selden tried to demonstrate that tithing depended on the civil law, rather than canon law. He also made much of the complexities of the ancient Jewish customs on tithes.
In 1623 he produced an edition of Eadmer's Historia Novarum. It was notable for including in appendices information from the Domesday Book, which at the time had not been published and could only be consulted in the original at Westminster, on the payment of a fee.
He published in 1642 Privileges of the Baronage of England when they sit in Parliament and Discourse concerning the Rights and Privileges of the Subject. In 1652 he wrote a preface and collated some of the manuscripts for Sir Roger Twysden's Historiae Anglicae scriptores decem.
Literature and archaeology of the Near East
In 1617 his De diis Syriis was issued, and immediately established him fame as an orientalist. It is remarkable for its early use of the comparative method, on Semitic mythology. Also in 1642 he published a part of the Arabic chronicle of Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria, under the title Eutychii Aegyptii, Patriarchae Orthodoxorum Alexandrini, ... ecclesiae suae origines. This mattered for the discussion in it of the absence in Alexandria of the distinction between priests and bishops, a burning issue in the debate at the time in the Church of England.
Studies on Judaism
He employed his leisure at Wrest in writing De successionibus in bona defuncti secundum leges Ebraeorum and De successione in pontificatum Ebraeorum, published in 1631.
During the progress of the constitutional conflict, he was absorbed in research, publishing De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum in 1640. It was a contribution to the theorising of the period on natural law. In the words of John Milton, this "volume of naturall & national laws proves, not only by great authorities brought together, but by exquisite reasons and theorems almost mathematically demonstrative, that all opinions, yea errors, known, read, and collated, are of main service & assistance toward the speedy attainment of what is truest." It develops into a theory of international law, taking as its basis the Seven Laws of Noah.
In 1644, he published Dissertatio de anno civili et calendario reipublicae Judaicae, in 1646 his treatise on marriage and divorce among the Jews entitled Uxor Ebraica, and in 1647 the earliest printed edition of the old English law-book Fleta. In 1650 Selden began to print the trilogy he planned on the Sanhedrin, as the first part of De synedriis et prefecturis juridicis veterum Ebraeorum through the press, the second and third parts being severally published in 1653 and 1655. The aim of this work was to counter the use the Presbyterians, in particular, made of arguments and precedents drawn from Jewish tradition; it was a very detailed study aimed at refuting such arguments, and pointing out the inherent flexibility of the actual tradition that was being cited.
He seems to have inclined towards the court rather than the popular party, in the early 1630s, and even to have secured the personal favour of the king. To him in 1635 he dedicated his Mare clausum, and under the royal patronage it was put forth as a kind of state paper.
It had been written sixteen or seventeen years before, but James I had prohibited its publication for political reasons; hence it appeared a quarter of a century after Grotius's The Free Sea (Mare liberum), to which it was intended to be a rejoinder, and the pretensions advanced in which on behalf of the Dutch fishermen to poach in the waters off the English coasts, it was its purpose to explode. The fact that Selden was not retained in the great case of ship money in 1637 by John Hampden, the cousin of his former client, may be accepted as additional evidence that his zeal in the popular cause was not so warm and unsuspected as it had once been.
His last publication was a vindication of himself from certain charges advanced against him and his Mare clausum around 1653 by Theodore Graswinckel, a Dutch jurist.
Several of Selden's minor works were printed for the first time after his death, and a collective edition of his writings was published by David Wilkins in 3 volumes folio in 1725, and again in 1726. Table Talk, for which he is perhaps best known, did not appear until 1689. It was edited by his amanuensis, Richard Milward,[link currently leads to a wrong person] who affirms that "the sense and notion is wholly Selden's," and that "most of the words" are his also. Its genuineness has sometimes been questioned.
He was sceptical of the legend of King Arthur as it had grown up, but believed Arthur had existed. The Druids, he commented on Poly-Olbion, were ancient and presumed esoteric thinkers. The popular image of a Druid descends via a masque of Inigo Jones from a reconstruction by Selden, based (without good foundations) on ancient German statuary.
According to the Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, he "played a role of fundamental importance in the transition of English historical writing from a medieval antiquarianism to a more modern understanding of the scope and function of history than had ever before been expressed in Renaissance England". His reputation lasted well, with Mark Pattison calling him "the most learned man, not only of his party, but of Englishmen".
By about 1640, Selden's views (with those of Grotius) had a large impact on the Great Tew circle around Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland: William Chillingworth, Dudley Digges, Henry Hammond. It was in this milieu that Selden met and befriended Thomas Hobbes. They had much in common, in political thought, but the precise connections have not been clarified.
Richard Cumberland followed Selden over both Grotius and Thomas Hobbes on natural law. Selden contested the scholastic position, after Cicero, that "right reason" could by its dictates alone generate obligation, by claiming that a formal obligation required a superior in authority. In his De legibus Cumberland rejects Selden's solution by means of the Noahide laws, in De jure naturali, in favour of Selden's less developed alternate solution. The latter is more orthodox for a Thomist, an intellectus agens as a natural faculty in the rational soul, by the mediation of which divine intellect can intervene directly with individuals. Matthew Hale tried to merge the theory of Grotius on property with Selden's view on obligation. Cumberland and Hale both belonged to a larger group, followers in a broad sense of Selden, with backgrounds mostly of Cambridge and the law, comprising also Orlando Bridgeman, Hezekiah Burton, John Hollings, Richard Kidder, Edward Stillingfleet, John Tillotson, and John Wilkins.
Giambattista Vico called Grotius, Selden and Samuel Pufendorf the "three princes" of the "natural law of the gentes". He went on to criticise their approach foundationally. In his Autobiography he specifies that they had conflated the natural law of the "nations", based on custom, with that of the philosophers, based on reason. Isaiah Berlin comments on Vico's admiration for Grotius and Selden.(dal web)